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How does a Transformer work ?

How does a Transformer work ?


Transformers are capable of receiving
AC power at one voltage and delivering it at another voltage. In this way they help achieve better
transmission efficiency, while transferring the power over longer
distances. In this video we will go through the
working and construction of a three-phase transformer, by starting from its simplest form. The basic working principle a
transformer is simple, Electromagnetic induction. According to this principle a varying magnetic flux associated with
the loop will induce an electromotive force
across it. Such a fluctuating magnetic field can
easily be produced by a coil and alternating EMF system. A current-carrying conductor produces a
magnetic field around it. The magnetic field produced by a coil will be as shown in the figure. With the fluctuating nature of the
alternating current, the magnetic field associated with the
coil will also fluctuate. This magnetic flux can be effectively
linked to a secondary winding, with the help of a core made up a ferromagnetic material. This fluctuating magnetic field will
induce an EMF in the secondary coils due to electromagnetic induction. Since the turns are arranged in a series, the net EMF induced across the winding will be the sum of the individual EMFs induced in each turn. Since the same magnetic flux is passing through the primary and secondary coils, the EMF per turn for both the primary
and secondary coils will be the same. The EMF per turn for the primary coil is related to the applied input voltage
as shown. As a result the induced EMF at the secondary coil is expressed as follows: This simply means that with fewer turns
in the secondary than in primary one can lower the voltage. For the reverse case one can increase
the voltage. But since energy is conserved, the primary and secondary currents have to obey the following relationship: Three-phase transformers use three such single-phase transformers, but with a slightly different coil configuration. Here the primary and secondary coils sit concentrically. Two more such windings are employed in a
three-phase transformer. Transformers with high power ratings
generally employ a special kind of winding known as a
Disc type winding, Where separate disk windings are
connected in series through outer and inner crossovers. The low voltage windings are connected in a delta configuration. And the high voltage linings are connected in a star configuration. Thus the line voltage further rises to 3^.5 times at high voltage side. This also means that, from a three-phase step up transformer we can draw four output wires, three-phase power wires and one neutral. High-voltage insulated bushings are
required to bring out the electrical energy. The core of the transformer is made of
thin insulated steel laminations. Such steel laminations are stacked
together as shown to form a three-phase limbs. The purpose of thin laminations is to
reduce energy lost due to eddy current
formation. The low voltage winding usually sit near
the core. Various kinds of energy loss happens while transferring power from the primary to secondary coil. All these energy losses are dissipated
as heat. So usually the transformer is immersed in a cooling coil, to dissipate the heat. The oil dissipates the heat via natural convection. Oil in the tank will expand as it absorbs the heat. A conservator tank helps to accommodate
for this volume change. To know more on different types a transformer cores and
windings please check out our other videos. Thank you !

100 thoughts on “How does a Transformer work ?

  1. Be our dubbing partner and earn a regular income !
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  2. I was in danger of being beat up and shot by a Crypt Gangster until I asked him if he wanted to know how a transformer works. Also, had he ever been curious about Nuclear Fusion?? You should have seen the look on his face – he was terrified of me and took off real quick like, getting into the car with the rest of his homies. Whatever he told 'em must have had the same effect c'os they were GONE, and I mean GONE, screeching tires and all!!!!

  3. I am just going to join engineering and many more things are remained to be learned…but while watching this video I learned a lot. But I have a doubt that how the transformer can turn the low voltage to higher voltage? Doesn't it disobey the law of conservation of energy?

  4. Does this mean that transformers can generate more electricity than what you have actually generated by increasing the voltage? is the amperage also increased?

  5. No no no a transformer does not work like that. It is an American truck which if pissed off can turn into a giant anthropomorphic robot shooting bombs and lasers.

  6. When you placed the primary coil inside the secondary coil, I assume the coils don't touch each other, what is the size of the gap and if there is anything in there besides air separating them?

  7. Sir, why consumers pay for the "transmission loss" ?
    What's the reason of paying for it?
    It's in the electric bill.
    Anyone can answer, thanks.

  8. This is supposed to be a simplified explanation? Of how transformers work. I dont have an engineering degree! This is way to confusing

  9. Nice

    You can visit our YouTube Channel for 3D animated process animation videos. Process Animation shows inherent production processes and manufacturing methodologies which helps normal people understand the concept even better. Our creative designers transform the complex or mundane processes into superbly sculpted 3D models with vivid visualization and presence.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0o4ZCjHnaRw&list=PLvqBR4ZcnKuPx2nMpDJFyRpRokccteDUw&index=6

  10. Indução magnética não precisa primário x secundário somente grande bobina que é rede elétrica x núcleo magma no centro da terra vai aquecer até rachar planeta no meio

  11. Low voltage coils will be connected in star fashion. High voltage coils will be connected in Delta fashion. This is for your kind information.

  12. 3:45 на практике чаще тоже низковольтные (вторичные) обмотки расключены звездой. С генератора только фазы приходят, а в дом нужно ноль завести и фазу. Я правильно думаю или нет?

  13. and ,what is transformers efficiency- i saw somewhere it is 95% but i doubt because this world is far from perfect( i checked all my trafos and it has no more than 50-70%-difference between in/out power

  14. Que lastima NO ESTEN SUBTITULADOS O TRADUCIDOS AL ESPAÑOL, MEJOR. mUY BUENO, TENDREMOS QUE IR NOSOTROS EXPLICANDO PASO A PASO COSA QUE NO ES PROBLEMA, PERO SE NOS PODRIAN ESCAPAR ALGUNAS COSAS. Saludos dese arg

  15. I read in my automotive book that step up transformers increase voltage but also lower current/amps. Which unfortunately I'm still confused about.

  16. This video is really helpful for visualising the working of a transformer, and the connection of all the wires inside the transformer.thanks

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